Glossary of Terms
- Adaptive and Coping Strategies: A child's ability to stay regulated while adapting
to new situations, environments, etc. Their ability to use coping
strategies during challenging situations (e.g., Do they fall
apart under stress or do they adapt and cope?).
The use of facial expressions, gestures, body language and tone
of voice to express ideas and emotions.
- Circle of Interaction: This is a two-way interaction where one participant
initiates and the other responds. For example, an adult tickles
a child and the child gestures for more. Developmentally a child
should be able to regulate themselves and sustain multiple circles
of interaction as a foundation to other learning and development.
- DIR: Developmental
Individual Relationship-based Intervention created by Drs. Greenspan
and Wieder. WWW.ICDL.COM
- Emotional Thinking: The child leans to elaborate fantasies and to
make connections between different ideas.
Babies coo, smile, gesture and exchange motor movements with
their partners. An older child is able to sustain engagement
while sharing ideas, experiencing a range of emotions, etc..
- Extending and Expanding the Drama: Tuning in to the child's imagination and ideas
and taking them one step further through gestures and words.
- Floor Time: A
warm and intimate way of relating to a child. A floor time philosophy
means engaging, respecting and getting in tune with the child
in order to help the child elaborate through gestures, words,
and pretend play what is on the child's mind. As a technique,
floor time a process that is used to support the emotional and
social development of the child.
- Following the Child's Lead: Using naturally motivating interactions to target
development. For example, a child is interested in stacking blocks
of the same color. You gently suggest another color, or hold
all the blocks of the desired color in your hand. This forces
the child to be interactive and specific developmental goals
can be targeted.
- Motor Planning: This
is the ability to "think and do" or to "execute
ideas" using physical movement and/or language. For example,
a child has the idea that the doll should ride in the car. She
bends the legs and pushes the car while saying "Vroooom!"
Sequencing in motor planning is needed for problem solving, sustained
attention and play. A child's developmental profile will describe
motor planning abilities can be strong or weak as they relate
to language, fine and gross motor abilities.
- Observing: Noticing
how the child is special and unique in style, rhythm and mood.
- Regulation: The
ability to stay regulated rather than being over or understimulated.
Children with sensory processing difficulties that make organizing
incoming information difficult, often are challenged in the area
of regulation. Regulation is best when the following areas come
together: sensory integration, cognitive understanding, problem
solving, adaptive and coping abilities, and the ability to sustain
- Rhythm and Timing (also see Shared
Timing): This refers to the child's
ability to sustain rhythm and timing during interactions. A child
must be regulated to sustain rhythm and timing. This ability
is a core foundation to successful back and forth interactions
- Sensory Processing the child's ability to process sensory information
and maintain regulation in their environment.
- Sensory Processing Profile: A child's individual neurological make-up including
processing abilities related to auditory, visual, proprioceptive,
vestibular, and tactile systems.
- Shared Meanings: The
child begins to communicate ideas with words or pretend play.
Emotional themes enter the child's play. The child uses themes
not only to express wants and needs but also to expand fantasies
- Shared Timing: This
refers to the ability to sustain a back and forth interaction
in a rhythmic way. For example, two people take turns hitting
a drum while maintaining a rhythm. It is important during shared
timing to attend to the other person, know when to act and when
to hold back. This activity encourages regulation and sustained
interaction. It is used to build the foundations of sustaining
back and forth interactions. A hierarchy of activities is used
to build from simple back and forth turn taking to more complex
back and forth interactions that require thinking and language.
- Stages of Relating: Stages in emotional and social development of
- Theory of Mind: The
ability to understand what other people experience the world
differently than you do. That they have different thoughts, beliefs
and desires. That they know things you do not know and visa versa.
And that, people can be deceived.
- Threshold for affect: This is to what extent and what type of affect
a child can cope with. Due to sensory processing differences,
children can tolerate different types and different levels of
affect at different times. For example, a child may respond to
high affect one minute but get overstimulated and need lower
tones and less affect the next minute. It is crucial to gage
a child's threshold for affect at all times and respond accordingly
to sustain regulation and engagement. Children with sensory processing
difficulties often need heightened affect or soft affect in order
to respond. The goal is to help the child eventually process
a range of affect while staying regulated, engaged and purposeful.
- Two-Way Communication: The child is able to have an emotional dialogue.
Opening and closing circles can take place. You need to take
an interest in and respond to the child, and the child responds
with gestural and verbal reactions.
Some of the items in the materials list and glossary were adapted
from the following website: Coping.org Tools for Coping with
Life's Stressors/Tools for Early Identification and Intervention
- 0-5 years/ The "Greenspan" Floor Time Model/ http://www.coping.org/earlyin/floortm.htm#Abstract